UWisconsin CS 763: Security and Privacy in Data Science (Previously CS 839: Topics in Security and Privacy)
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author: Security and Privacy in Data Science (CS 763)
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title: Course Welcome
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date: September 04, 2019
# Security and Privacy
## It's everywhere!
## Stuff is totally insecure!
## It's really difficult!
# What topics to cover?
## A really, really vast field
- Things we will not be able to cover:
- Real-world attacks
- Computer systems security
- Defenses and countermeasures
- Social aspects of security
- Theoretical cryptography
- ...
## Theme 1: Formalizing S&P
- Mathematically formalize notions of security
- Rigorously prove security
- Guarantee that certain breakages can't occur
> Remember: definitions are tricky things!
## Theme 2: Automating S&P
- Use computers to help build more secure systems
- Automatically check security properties
- Search for attacks and vulnerabilities
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## Five modules
1. Differential privacy
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2. Adversarial machine learning
3. Applied cryptography
4. Algorithmic fairness
5. PL and verification
## This course is broad!
- Each module could be its own course
- We won't be able to go super deep
- You will probably get lost
- Our goal: broad survey of multiple areas
- Lightning tour, focus on high points
> Hope: find a few things that interest you
## This course is technical!
- Approach each topic from a rigorous point of view
- Parts of "data science" with **provable guarantees**
- This is not a "theory course", but...
. . .
# Differential privacy
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## A mathematically solid definition of privacy
- Simple and clean formal property
- Satisfied by many algorithms
- Degrades gracefully under composition
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# Adversarial machine learning
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## Manipulating ML systems
- Crafting examples to fool ML systems
- Messing with training data
- Extracting training information
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# Applied crypto
## Crypto in data science
- Learning models without raw access to private data
- Collecting analytics data privately, at scale
- Side channels and implementation issues
- Verifiable execution of ML models
- Other topics (e.g., model watermarking)
# Algorithmic fairness
## When is a program "fair"?
- Individual and group fairness
- Inherent tradeoffs and challenges
- Fairness in unsupervised learning
- Fairness and causal inference
# PL and verification
## Proving correctness
- Programming languages for security and privacy
- Interpreting neural networks and ML models
- Verifying properties of neural networks
- Verifying probabilistic programs
# Tedious course details
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## Lecture schedule
- First ten weeks: **lectures MWF**
- Intensive lectures, get you up to speed
- M: I will present
- WF: You will present
- Last five weeks: **no lectures**
- Intensive work on projects
- I will be available to meet, one-on-one
> You must attend lectures and participate
## Class format
- Three components:
1. Paper presentations
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2. Presentation summaries
3. Final project
- Announcement/schedule/materials: on [website](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/)
- Class mailing list: [compsci763-1-f19@lists.wisc.edu]()
## Paper presentations
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- In pairs, lead a discussion on group of papers
- See website for [detailed instructions](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/assignments/presentations/jjj)
- See website for [schedule of topics](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/schedule/lectures/)
- One week **before** presentation: meet with me
- Come prepared with presentation materials
- Run through your outline, I will give feedback
## Presentation summaries
- In pairs, prepare written summary of another group
- See website for [detailed instructions](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/assignments/summaries/)
- See website for [schedule of topics](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/schedule/lectures/)
- One week **after** presentation: send me summary
- I will work with you to polish report
- Writeups will be shared with the class
## Final project
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- In groups of three (or very rarely two)
- See website for [project details](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/assignments/project/)
- Key dates:
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- **September 9**: Form groups, pick topic
- **October 11**: Milestone 1
- **November 8**: Milestone 2
- **End of class**: Final writeups and presentations
## Todos for you
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0. Complete the [course survey](https://forms.gle/NvYx3BM7HVkuzYdG6)
1. Explore the [course website](https://pages.cs.wisc.edu/~justhsu/teaching/current/cs763/)
2. Think about which lecture you want to present
3. Think about which lecture you want to summarize
4. Brainstorm project topics
# Defining privacy
## What does privacy mean?
- Many kinds of "privacy breaches"
- Obvious: third party learns your private data
- Retention: you give data, company keeps it forever
- Passive: you don't know your data is collected
## Why is privacy hard?
- Hard to pin down what privacy means!
- Once data is out, can't put it back into the bottle
- Privacy-preserving data release today may violate privacy tomorrow, combined
with "side-information"
- Data may be used many times, often doesn't change
## Hiding private data
- Delete "personally identifiable information"
- Name and age
- Birthday
- Social security number
- ...
- Publish the "anonymized" or "sanitized" data
## Problem: not enough
- Can match up anonymized data with public sources
- *De-anonymize* data, associate names to records
- Really, really hard to think about side information
- May not even be public at time of data release!
## Netflix challenge
- Database of movie ratings
- Published: ID number, movie rating, and rating date
- Attack: from public IMDB ratings, recover names for Netflix data
## "Blending in a crowd"
- Only release records that are similar to others
- *k-anonymity*: require at least k identical records
- Other variants: *l-diversity*, *t-closeness*, ...
## Problem: composition
- Repeating k-anonymous releases may lose privacy
- Privacy protection may fall off a cliff
- First few queries fine, then suddenly total violation
- Again, interacts poorly with side-information
## Differential privacy
- Proposed by Dwork, McSherry, Nissim, Smith (2006)
> A new approach to formulating privacy goals: the risk to one’s privacy, or in
> general, any type of risk... should not substantially increase as a result of
> participating in a statistical database. This is captured by differential
> privacy.
## Basic setting
- Private data: set of records from individuals
- Each individual: one record
- Example: set of medical records
- Private query: function from database to output
- Randomized: adds noise to protect privacy
## Basic definition
A query $Q$ is **$(\varepsilon, \delta)$-differentially private** if for every two
databases $db, db'$ that differ in **one individual's record**, and for every
subset $S$ of outputs, we have:
\Pr[ Q(db) \in S ] \leq e^\varepsilon \cdot \Pr[ Q(db') \in S ] + \delta